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Dmanisi, the site of a medieval town located at the confluence of two rivers, has been registered as an archaeological site since excavations began there in 1936. An archaeologist came across the remains of an ancient man.
The research confirmed that the Dmanisi remains are the oldest and the most primitive in Eurasia. On the basis of paleontological, archaeological and hominid materials, scholars dated the site as 1.7 to 1.8 years old.
Dzalisi Archaeological site consists of several layers from the Bronze Age (3rd-2nd Millenium BC). It was the second Capital of Kartli Kingdom up to the period of its decline from 5th c. AD to 8th c. AD. The site represents an amazing architectural complex - the residence of the second King of
Kartli Kingdom whose reign lasted from the middle of the first century AD up to the 5th century. The site boasts four palaces and hypo-caustic baths, acropolis, swimming pool, administrative part, barracks for soldiers, water supply system and burial grounds of the first settlements (Second millennium BC). The baths are famous with splendid mosaics depicting scenes from the ancient Greek mythology which are influenced by the Dionysus cult.
The ruins at Gonio - known as "Asparunt" (3rd - 2nd cc. BC), meaning "the place of water", held one of Georgia's ancient and most significant archaeological discoveries. During the period of its prosperity, local rulers of Colchis once commanded one of the biggest ports on the Black Sea coast. Gonio fortress is a best example of Roman-Byzantine military architecture, spread over
almost 5 hectares of territory with 18 original towers of the Roman Period.
Nokalakevi site represents the archaeological and architectural complex, with well-fortified systems, palaces and baths, trump arch, churches and unique tunnel. The whole area presents 20 hectares within the walls. The site developed from 13th c BC till 6th c AC. Several workshops for making small ceramic ritual sculptures and beads, a ritual
place with two-headed zoomorphic ceramic figurines - the symbols of fertility, cone shaped objects from weaving loom for manufacturing of linen, a cemetery, and more then 200 burial grounds have been found during excavations.
Tsikheagora - Multilayered site of Tsikheagora developed from Early Bronze Age till Hellenistic Period. Some dwellings, burials, several constructions, wine cellars, pottery, and ritual objects were found during excavations. The thickness of cultural layer exceeds six meters. The most comprehensive upper layer is of the Hellenistic period, and reveals a large Architectural complex. The site has been under excavation since 1971.
Uplistsikhe - meaning "The Fortress of God" is an ancient cave town from the 1st half of the 1st millennium BC. situated on the crossroads of important trade routs. It was the main centre of paganism, and represents a complex of halls, caves, theatres, altars, pagan temples, secret tunnels, prisons, pharmacy, passages-streets all carved out of stone over an area of 4 hectares. At its peak of prosperity, the city had a population of 20 000.
In 9th -10th cc AD a three-nave basilica was added to the complex.
Vani archaeological site developed from 8th c BC till the 1st c AD, although archaeological studies have revealed uninterrupted existence of the settlement during almost the entire 1st millennium BC. The excavations revealed the sanctuary with traces of fire, numerous potteries and figurines of animals, sacrificial grounds, clay vessels, cultic ritual remains, objects of household economy and weapons. The name "Vani" in old Georgian language means "house" or "apartment". This term occurs in old Georgian sources dating as far back as the 5th - 6th c. AD.
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